This chapter examines the nature and structure of career counseling in light of the changes occurring in career development theory building. Then, in the second part of chapter, a holistic view of career development, called life career development, is described to provide a conceptual foundation and point of departure for career counseling with clients of all ages and circumstances. The chapter closes with a discussion of competencies for counselors who do career counseling. The Career Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (O'Brien & Heppner, 1995) is presented and described.
Understand the nature and structure of career development and career counseling practices
Examine modern normative, science-based theories, such as Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environments, as well as newer, post-modern theories of career counseling
Reflect upon competencies for counselors who conduct career counseling